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制动器知识

行车制动器的功能

来源:http://impnow.com/news/164.html添加时间:2015-01-22

    行(xing)(xing)车(che)制(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)器(qi)(qi)是(shi)行(xing)(xing)车(che)制(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)系中用(yong)以产生阻碍车(che)辆运动(dong)(dong)(dong)的(de)(de)制(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)力的(de)(de)部件。凡是(shi)利用(yong)固定元件与旋(xuan)转(zhuan)元件工作表面(mian)的(de)(de)摩(mo)(mo)擦(ca)(ca)而产生制(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)力矩的(de)(de)制(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)器(qi)(qi)都称为(wei)(wei)摩(mo)(mo)擦(ca)(ca)制(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)器(qi)(qi)。目前(qian)各类轿(jiao)车(che)均采用(yong)摩(mo)(mo)擦(ca)(ca)制(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)器(qi)(qi)。摩(mo)(mo)擦(ca)(ca)制(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)器(qi)(qi)有鼓式和盘(pan)(pan)式两(liang)种不周的(de)(de)结构型式。前(qian)者的(de)(de)摩(mo)(mo)擦(ca)(ca)副(fu)中的(de)(de)旋(xuan)转(zhuan)元件为(wei)(wei)制(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)鼓,其工作表面(mian)为(wei)(wei)圆柱面(mian):后者的(de)(de)旋(xuan)转(zhuan)元件为(wei)(wei)制(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)盘(pan)(pan),制(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)盘(pan)(pan)的(de)(de)两(liang)端面(mian)为(wei)(wei)工作表面(mian)。

    由于行车(che)制(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)器(qi)的(de)旋(xuan)转元(yuan)件都(dou)安装在车(che)轮(lun)或半(ban)轴上,因此行车(che)制(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)器(qi)也(ye)称(cheng)车(che)轮(lun)制(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)器(qi)。

    盘(pan)(pan)(pan)式(shi)(shi)(shi)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动器(qi)摩擦(ca)副中(zhong)的(de)旋转元件都是(shi)以端面(mian)工作的(de)金(jin)(jin)属圆(yuan)盘(pan)(pan)(pan),称(cheng)为制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动盘(pan)(pan)(pan)。其固定元件则有(you)着(zhe)多种(zhong)(zhong)结构型式(shi)(shi)(shi),大(da)体上(shang)可分为两类:一(yi)类是(shi)工作面(mian)积(ji)不(bu)大(da)的(de)摩擦(ca)块(kuai)与其金(jin)(jin)属背板(ban)组(zu)成的(de)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动块(kuai),每个制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动器(qi)中(zhong)有(you)2-4个,这些制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动块(kuai)及(ji)其促(cu)动装(zhuang)置都装(zhuang)在横跨在制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动盘(pan)(pan)(pan)两侧(ce)的(de)夹钳(qian)形(xing)支(zhi)架中(zhong),总称(cheng)为制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动钳(qian),这种(zhong)(zhong)由(you)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动盘(pan)(pan)(pan)和(he)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动钳(qian)组(zu)成的(de)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动器(qi)称(cheng)为钳(qian)盘(pan)(pan)(pan)式(shi)(shi)(shi)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动器(qi);另一(yi)类盘(pan)(pan)(pan)式(shi)(shi)(shi)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动器(qi)的(de)固定元件的(de)金(jin)(jin)属背板(ban)和(he)摩擦(ca)片也呈圆(yuan)盘(pan)(pan)(pan)形(xing),使用这种(zhong)(zhong)固定元件,因其制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动盘(pan)(pan)(pan)的(de)全部工作面(mian)可同时与摩擦(ca)片接触,因此称(cheng)为全盘(pan)(pan)(pan)式(shi)(shi)(shi)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动器(qi),这种(zhong)(zhong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动器(qi)仅在少(shao)数重型汽(qi)车上(shang)采用。

    鼓(gu)式制动器(qi)有内张(zhang)型和外束(shu)型两种。前者的制动鼓(gu)以内圆柱面为工作表面,在中、低级轿车的后(hou)轮制动器(qi)上(shang)得到了广泛应用;后(hou)者制动鼓(gu)的工作表面则是(shi)外圆柱面。内张(zhang)型鼓(gu)式制动器(qi)又简称为鼓(gu)式制动器(qi)。