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液压制动器是如何工作的,结构图是什么,快来看看吧

来源:http://impnow.com/news/337.html添加时间:2020-11-04

  在汽车上为了保证行驶安全,通常会安装液压制动器,它是刹车装置的一种,让机器的运转变得安全平稳。那么液压制动器是如何工作的,结构是什么呢?快来跟小编一起来了解下吧。

  制动器的工作方法:

制动器的结构图

  (1)不(bu)制动(dong)时,制动(dong)鼓的内圆(yuan)柱面与制动(dong)蹄摩擦片(pian)的外圆(yuan)柱之间有(you)一定的间隙,使车轮和制动(dong)鼓可(ke)以自由转(zhuan)动(dong)。

  (2)制(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)时(shi),驾驶员踩下制(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)板(ban),通过推(tui)(tui)杆推(tui)(tui)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)主缸(gang)活塞,使主缸(gang)内(nei)的(de)(de)(de)油液产生一定压力(li)后流入制(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)轮缸(gang),推(tui)(tui)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)轮缸(gang)活塞使两侧(ce)制(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)蹄绕支(zhi)撑销转动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)而张开(kai),将摩(mo)擦片压紧在(zai)制(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)的(de)(de)(de)内(nei)圆(yuan)柱面上与制(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)鼓摩(mo)擦产生阻(zu)碍车(che)轮转动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)的(de)(de)(de)制(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)力(li)矩。制(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)力(li)作(zuo)用(yong)(yong)的(de)(de)(de)结果使车(che)轮转速(su)下降,从而使汽车(che)减速(su)或停(ting)车(che)。放松(song)制(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)踏板(ban),在(zai)回位弹(dan)簧的(de)(de)(de)作(zuo)用(yong)(yong)下,制(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)蹄回到原位,制(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)解除。

  汽车(che)制动力(li)(li)不仅取决于制动力(li)(li)矩,还取决于轮(lun)胎(tai)(tai)与(yu)路面(mian)间(jian)的(de)附着(zhe)条件,即(ji)制动力(li)(li)只能小于附着(zhe)力(li)(li)。当(dang)制动力(li)(li)等于附着(zhe)力(li)(li)时,车(che)轮(lun)将被(bei)抱死而在路面(mian)上滑移(yi)。滑移(yi)会使(shi)胎(tai)(tai)面(mian)局部(bu)严重磨损(sun),并使(shi)胎(tai)(tai)面(mian)局部(bu)受高温造成软化,就好像(xiang)轮(lun)胎(tai)(tai)与(yu)路面(mian)被(bei)一层润滑剂隔(ge)开,使(shi)附着(zhe)力(li)(li)系(xi)数(shu)减(jian)小,制动性变差。

  普通液压制动器的组成部分:

  真空助力器结构图

  1、当发动机工作时,真空(kong)助(zhu)力器才起作用,其工作过程(cheng)如下:

  制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)时,踏下制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)踏板(ban),踏板(ban)推(tui)(tui)杆l和空(kong)(kong)(kong)气(qi)阀5向前(qian)(qian)推(tui)(tui),压缩橡(xiang)胶反作(zuo)(zuo)用(yong)(yong)(yong)盘(pan),消除间(jian)隙,推(tui)(tui)动(dong)推(tui)(tui)杆12向前(qian)(qian)移,使制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)主(zhu)缸(gang)压力(li)(li)(li)(li)升高(gao)并传至各(ge)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)器,此时动(dong)作(zuo)(zuo)力(li)(li)(li)(li)由驾驶(shi)员给出;同时,真(zhen)空(kong)(kong)(kong)阀16和空(kong)(kong)(kong)气(qi)阀5起(qi)作(zuo)(zuo)用(yong)(yong)(yong),空(kong)(kong)(kong)气(qi)进(jin)入(ru)B腔,推(tui)(tui)动(dong)膜(mo)片座(zuo)6前(qian)(qian)移,产生(sheng)助(zhu)力(li)(li)(li)(li)作(zuo)(zuo)用(yong)(yong)(yong),助(zhu)力(li)(li)(li)(li)由进(jin)气(qi)管真(zhen)空(kong)(kong)(kong)度和空(kong)(kong)(kong)气(qi)压力(li)(li)(li)(li)差决定(ding);强(qiang)力(li)(li)(li)(li)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)时,踏板(ban)力(li)(li)(li)(li)可直接作(zuo)(zuo)用(yong)(yong)(yong)在踏板(ban)推(tui)(tui)杆并传至推(tui)(tui)杆上(shang),真(zhen)空(kong)(kong)(kong)助(zhu)力(li)(li)(li)(li)与(yu)踏板(ban)力(li)(li)(li)(li)同时起(qi)作(zuo)(zuo)用(yong)(yong)(yong),强(qiang)力(li)(li)(li)(li)建立制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)主(zhu)缸(gang)压力(li)(li)(li)(li),强(qiang)力(li)(li)(li)(li)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)维持制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)时,踏板(ban)可停留在踏下的(de)某个位置,真(zhen)空(kong)(kong)(kong)助(zhu)力(li)(li)(li)(li)起(qi)作(zuo)(zuo)用(yong)(yong)(yong),维持制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)作(zuo)(zuo)用(yong)(yong)(yong)。

  解除制动(dong)时,放松制动(dong)踏板,真空助力器恢复(fu)原始位置,等待下一(yi)次制动(dong)的到来。

  2、双(shuang)腔(qiang)式制动主缸

  双腔式制动主缸 结构图

  (1)制动时,推杆推动后(hou)(hou)腔活(huo)塞左(zuo)移(yi),油压升高,克服弹力将制动液送入右前(qian)左(zuo)后(hou)(hou)制动回(hui)路;同时又推动前(qian)腔活(huo)塞(第二(er)活(huo)塞)左(zuo)移(yi),使(shi)第二(er)腔液压升高,进而两轮制动。

  (2)解除制动(dong)时(shi),活塞在弹(dan)簧作用下回位,液(ye)压油自轮缸(gang)和管路中流回制动(dong)主缸(gang),解除制动(dong)。

  3、后(hou)轮鼓式制动器的工作(zuo)原理

鼓式制动器

  (1)制(zhi)动(dong)时,两(liang)制(zhi)动(dong)蹄在轮(lun)缸中的液压力作用下,各自绕着其支承销偏心轴向(xiang)外旋转(zhuan),压紧到制(zhi)动(dong)鼓上(shang)(shang),制(zhi)动(dong)蹄上(shang)(shang)的摩擦(ca)衬片与制(zhi)动(dong)鼓摩擦(ca),制(zhi)动(dong)鼓受到摩擦(ca)减(jian)速(su),迫使车轮(lun)停止转(zhuan)动(dong)。

  (2)解除制动时,撤除液压,两蹄在(zai)弹簧的作用下复位(wei),摩擦片与制动鼓(gu)保持一定间隙,制动作用消(xiao)除。

  4、前轮盘式制动器的工作原理

  (1)不制(zhi)动(dong)(dong)时(shi),制(zhi)动(dong)(dong)块与制(zhi)动(dong)(dong)盘保持一定制(zhi)动(dong)(dong)间(jian)隙,不产生摩(mo)擦作(zuo)用。

  (2)制动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)时,来自制动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)总泵的液压油进(jin)入制动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)油缸,推动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)活塞(sai)及其(qi)上的制动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)块向(xiang)左(zuo)(zuo)移(yi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong),并压到制动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)盘上,于是(shi)活塞(sai)给(ji)制动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)钳(qian)(qian)体一(yi)个向(xiang)右的反(fan)作用(yong)力,使(shi)得制动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)钳(qian)(qian)体整体沿(yan)销钉向(xiang)右移(yi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong),直到制动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)盘左(zuo)(zuo)侧的制动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)块也压紧在(zai)制动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)盘上。此时,两(liang)侧的制动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)块都压在(zai)制动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)盘上,夹住制动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)盘使(shi)其(qi)制动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)。

  (3)解除制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动时,制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动油缸中(zhong)的油液(ye)压力消除,活塞在(zai)橡(xiang)胶(jiao)密封圈作用(yong)下回位(wei),制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动钳体回位(wei),制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动解除。