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制动系统的组成及分类介绍,和小编一起了解下吧

来源:http://impnow.com/news/351.html添加时间:2021-07-21

  一、制动系统的组成

  制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)系统是由制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)器(qi)和(he)制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)驱动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)构组成(cheng)的(de)。制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)器(qi)是指产(chan)生阻碍车辆运动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)或运动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)趋势(shi)的(de)力(制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)力)的(de)部件,其中(zhong)也(ye)包(bao)括辅助制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)系统中(zhong)的(de)缓速装(zhuang)置(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)。制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)驱动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)构包(bao)括供能(neng)(neng)装(zhuang)置(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)、控制(zhi)(zhi)装(zhuang)置(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)、传(chuan)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)装(zhuang)置(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)、制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)力调节装(zhuang)置(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)以及报警装(zhuang)置(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)、压(ya)力保护装(zhuang)置(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)等附(fu)加装(zhuang)置(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)。供能(neng)(neng)装(zhuang)置(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)供给、调节制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)所(suo)需能(neng)(neng)量并(bing)改善传(chuan)能(neng)(neng)介质状态(tai)。控制(zhi)(zhi)装(zhuang)置(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)产(chan)生制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)作并(bing)控制(zhi)(zhi)制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)效果,如图11-1所(suo)示的(de)制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)踏板机(ji)构是简单的(de)一种控制(zhi)(zhi)装(zhuang)置(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)。传(chuan)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)装(zhuang)置(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)将制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)能(neng)(neng)量传(chuan)输到制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)器(qi),即如图11-1所(suo)示的(de)制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)主缸4和(he)制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)轮缸6。

  液压制动系统工作原理示意图

  二、制动系统的类型

  1、按制动系(xi)统的功用分类

  (1)行(xing)车(che)(che)制动系统:使行(xing)驶中的汽车(che)(che)降低速度甚至停(ting)车(che)(che)的一(yi)套专门装(zhuang)置,它是(shi)在行(xing)车(che)(che)过(guo)程中经(jing)常使用(yong)的装(zhuang)置。

  (2)驻(zhu)车(che)制动系统:使(shi)已停驶的(de)汽车(che)驻(zhu)留原地不(bu)动的(de)一套装置(zhi)。

  (3)二制动系(xi)统:在(zai)行车制动系(xi)统失效的情况(kuang)下,保证(zheng)汽车仍能实现减(jian)速(su)或停车的一套装置。在(zai)许多国家的制动法规中规定,二制动系(xi)统也是汽车必(bi)须(xu)具备的。用的基小城治(zhi)

  (4)辅助制(zhi)动(dong)系(xi)统:在汽车(che)下长(zhang)坡时用以稳定车(che)速(su)的(de)一套(tao)装置。例如,经(jing)常行驶在山区的(de)汽车(che),若(ruo)单靠行车(che)制(zhi)动(dong)系(xi)统来达到(dao)下长(zhang)坡时稳定车(che)速(su)的(de)目的(de),则可能(neng)导致行车(che)制(zhi)动(dong)系(xi)统的(de)制(zhi)动(dong)器(qi)过(guo)热而(er)降(jiang)低制(zhi)动(dong)效(xiao)能(neng),甚至完全失(shi)效(xiao)。

  2、按制(zhi)动(dong)系统(tong)的制(zhi)动(dong)能源分(fen)类

  (1)人力制(zhi)动(dong)系(xi)统:以驾驶员的人力作为制(zhi)动(dong)能源的制(zhi)动(dong)系(xi)统。

  (2)伺(si)服制动(dong)系(xi)统:兼用人(ren)力和发动(dong)机动(dong)力进行制动(dong)的制动(dong)系(xi)统。

  (3)动(dong)力(li)制动(dong)系统:完全靠由发动(dong)机(ji)的(de)动(dong)力(li)转化而成的(de)气压或液压形式的(de)势能进(jin)行制动(dong)的(de)制动(dong)系统。

  按照制(zhi)动(dong)能(neng)量的(de)传(chuan)输(shu)方式,制(zhi)动(dong)系统又可分(fen)为机械式液(ye)压式、气压式和电(dian)磁式等。同(tong)时采用(yong)两种以上(shang)传(chuan)能(neng)方式的(de)制(zhi)动(dong)系统,称(cheng)为组合式制(zhi)动(dong)系统。

  其传动(dong)装置采(cai)(cai)用单一(yi)的气(qi)压(ya)或液(ye)压(ya)回(hui)(hui)路(lu)的制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)系(xi)统(tong)(tong)为单回(hui)(hui)路(lu)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)系(xi)统(tong)(tong)。在这种制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)系(xi)统(tong)(tong)中,只要有(you)一(yi)处损坏而(er)漏(lou)气(qi)(油(you)),整(zheng)个系(xi)统(tong)(tong)即失效。我(wo)国(guo)自1988年1月1日开始,规定所有(you)汽车(che)必须采(cai)(cai)用双回(hui)(hui)路(lu)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)系(xi)统(tong)(tong)。在双回(hui)(hui)路(lu)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)系(xi)统(tong)(tong)中,所有(you)行车(che)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)器(qi)的气(qi)压(ya)或液(ye)压(ya)管(guan)路(lu)分属于(yu)两个彼(bi)此隔绝的回(hui)(hui)路(lu)。

  3、汽车(che)制动(dong)器

  汽车制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)器除各(ge)种缓速装置以外,几乎都(dou)是(shi)利用(yong)固定(ding)元(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)件(jian)与旋(xuan)转(zhuan)元(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)件(jian)工作表面的(de)摩(mo)擦产生制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)力矩的(de)摩(mo)擦制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)器。一般(ban)制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)器都(dou)是(shi)通过(guo)其中(zhong)的(de)固定(ding)元(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)件(jian)对旋(xuan)转(zhuan)元(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)件(jian)施加制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)力矩,使(shi)后(hou)者的(de)旋(xuan)转(zhuan)角速度(du)降低,同时依(yi)靠车轮(lun)与路面的(de)附着作用(yong),产生路面对车轮(lun)的(de)制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)力,以使(shi)汽车减速。

  凡利用固定元(yuan)(yuan)件与旋转(zhuan)元(yuan)(yuan)件工作表面(mian)的(de)摩擦(ca)作用产生制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)力(li)矩的(de)制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)器.都称为(wei)摩擦(ca)制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)器。目前,各类汽车(che)所用的(de)摩擦(ca)制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)器可分(fen)为(wei)鼓式和(he)盘(pan)式两大类,前者(zhe)摩擦(ca)副中(zhong)的(de)旋转(zhuan)元(yuan)(yuan)件为(wei)制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)鼓,其工作表面(mian)为(wei)圆(yuan)柱面(mian);后(hou)者(zhe)的(de)旋转(zhuan)元(yuan)(yuan)件则(ze)为(wei)圆(yuan)盘(pan)状(zhuang)的(de)制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)盘(pan),以端面(mian)为(wei)工作表面(mian)。

  旋转元件固(gu)装(zhuang)在(zai)车(che)(che)轮(lun)或半(ban)轴(zhou)上(shang),制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)力矩(ju)分(fen)别直(zhi)接作(zuo)用于(yu)两侧(ce)车(che)(che)轮(lun)上(shang)的制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)器,称为车(che)(che)轮(lun)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)器。旋转元件固(gu)装(zhuang)在(zai)传动(dong)系(xi)统的传动(dong)轴(zhou)上(shang),制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)力矩(ju)需经过驱动(dong)桥再分(fen)配到(dao)两侧(ce)车(che)(che)轮(lun)上(shang)的制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)器,则(ze)称为中(zhong)央(yang)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)器。车(che)(che)轮(lun)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)器一般(ban)(ban)用于(yu)行车(che)(che)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动(dong),也有兼用于(yu)二制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(或应(ying)急制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动(dong))和驻车(che)(che)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)。中(zhong)央(yang)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)器一般(ban)(ban)只用于(yu)驻车(che)(che)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)和缓速制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)。