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制动器(qi)问(wen)答

机械设备上安装制动器应选择什么类型

来源:http://impnow.com/news/353.html添加时间:2021-07-22

  在机(ji)器设备中,为了降低某些运(yun)动部件的(de)转速或使(shi)其停止,必须(xu)利(li)用(yong)(yong)制动器。制动器一(yi)般是利(li)用(yong)(yong)摩擦(ca)力矩来消耗机(ji)器运(yun)动部件的(de)动能(neng),从而(er)实现制动的(de)。制动器的(de)构造(zao)和使(shi)用(yong)(yong)性能(neng)必须(xu)满(man)足以下要求(qiu):

  (1)能产生足够大的制动力矩。

  (2)结构简单(dan),外形紧凑(cou)。

  (3)制(zhi)动迅速、平(ping)稳、可靠(kao)。

  (4)制动(dong)器的(de)零件要(yao)有足够的(de)强(qiang)度(du)和(he)刚度(du),还要(yao)有较(jiao)高的(de)耐磨(mo)性和(he)耐热(re)性。

  (5)调(diao)整和(he)维(wei)修(xiu)方便。

  制动器(qi)(qi)按(an)照制动零件的(de)结构特征(zheng)分为(wei)块式(shi)、带式(shi)、盘式(shi)等型式(shi)的(de)制动器(qi)(qi)。下(xia)面(mian)介(jie)绍几种常用的(de)摩擦式(shi)制动器(qi)(qi)。

  1、抱块式制动(dong)器

  抱块式制动器

  抱块(kuai)式(shi)制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)器(qi)是借助(zhu)瓦块(kuai)与制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)轮之间的摩擦(ca)力(li)来(lai)实现制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong),根据机构不工作时制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)零件所处状态分(fen)常闭式(shi)和常开式(shi)两(liang)种制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)器(qi)。

  常闭(bi)式(shi)(shi)抱(bao)块(kuai)式(shi)(shi)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)器(qi)(qi)(qi)断电(dian)时制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong),通(tong)电(dian)时解除制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)作(zuo)(zuo)用,处于(yu)松(song)闸(zha)(zha)(zha)状态(tai)。具体(ti)工作(zuo)(zuo)过程如图4-62所示,当(dang)松(song)闸(zha)(zha)(zha)器(qi)(qi)(qi)6断电(dian)时,主(zhu)弹簧3通(tong)过制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)臂4使闸(zha)(zha)(zha)瓦(wa)块(kuai)2压(ya)紧在制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)轮1上,达到制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)目的(de)。当(dang)松(song)闸(zha)(zha)(zha)器(qi)(qi)(qi)6通(tong)电(dian)时,电(dian)磁力(li)顶起立柱,通(tong)过推(tui)(tui)杆5和制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)臂4操(cao)纵闸(zha)(zha)(zha)瓦(wa)块(kuai)2与制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)轮1松(song)开(kai)。通(tong)过调整(zheng)推(tui)(tui)杆5的(de)长度来补偿闸(zha)(zha)(zha)瓦(wa)块(kuai)2的(de)磨损。常闭(bi)式(shi)(shi)抱(bao)块(kuai)式(shi)(shi)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)器(qi)(qi)(qi)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)和开(kai)启迅速、尺(chi)寸小(xiao)、质量(liang)小(xiao),但制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)时冲击大(da),不(bu)适用于(yu)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)力(li)矩大(da)的(de)场合,如提升机构中的(de)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)器(qi)(qi)(qi)。常开(kai)式(shi)(shi)抱(bao)块(kuai)式(shi)(shi)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)器(qi)(qi)(qi)的(de)工作(zuo)(zuo)原理与常闭(bi)式(shi)(shi)相反(fan),断电(dian)时处于(yu)松(song)闸(zha)(zha)(zha)状态(tai),通(tong)电(dian)时制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong),如机动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)车辆中的(de)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)器(qi)(qi)(qi)。

  2、内张蹄式(shi)制动(dong)器

  

内张蹄式制动器

  如图4-63所示,内张蹄式制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)器是利用(yong)内置(zhi)的制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)蹄在径向(xiang)向(xiang)外(wai)挤压(ya)制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)轮(lun),产生制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)转矩来(lai)制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)的。制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)器工作(zuo)时,泵(beng)4 (液压(ya)缸或气缸)克服(fu)拉(la)簧5的作(zuo)用(yong)使左(zuo)、右制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)蹄2.7分别与(yu)制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)轮(lun)6相互压(ya)紧,即产生制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)作(zuo)用(yong)。泵(beng)4卸压(ya)后,拉(la)簧5使两(liang)制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)蹄2、7与(yu)制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)轮(lun)6分离。

  内张蹄(ti)式制动器结构紧(jin)凑(cou),散热性(xing)好,密封容易(yi)。广泛(fan)应用于各种(zhong)车(che)辆结构尺寸受到限(xian)制的(de)场(chang)合。

  3、带式制动器(qi)

  

带式制动器

  如图(tu)4-64所(suo)示,带(dai)(dai)式制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)器(qi)是利用(yong)制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)带(dai)(dai)与制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)轮(lun)之(zhi)间的(de)摩擦(ca)力(li)(li)来实(shi)现(xian)制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)的(de)。当施加外(wai)力(li)(li)F。于(yu)制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)杠(gang)杆上(shang)时,利用(yong)杠(gang)杆作用(yong)使制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)带(dai)(dai)抱住制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)轮(lun)产生摩擦(ca)力(li)(li)达到制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)的(de)目的(de)。带(dai)(dai)式制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)器(qi)结构简单、紧凑(cou)、包角大、制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)力(li)(li)矩大。但制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)轮(lun)轴受较大的(de)弯(wan)曲(qu)作用(yong)力(li)(li),制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)带(dai)(dai)的(de)压强和磨损不均匀,且(qie)受摩擦(ca)系数变化的(de)影响大,散热(re)差(cha)。

  4、盘式制动器

  

浮动钳盘式制动器

  常用(yong)的(de)盘(pan)(pan)式(shi)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)器(qi)(qi)有钳(qian)(qian)盘(pan)(pan)式(shi)和(he)全盘(pan)(pan)式(shi)两种。钳(qian)(qian)盘(pan)(pan)式(shi)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)器(qi)(qi)可(ke)分(fen)为(wei)定钳(qian)(qian)盘(pan)(pan)式(shi)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)器(qi)(qi)和(he)浮(fu)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)钳(qian)(qian)盘(pan)(pan)式(shi)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)器(qi)(qi),此(ci)处主要介绍浮(fu)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)钳(qian)(qian)盘(pan)(pan)式(shi)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)器(qi)(qi)。如(ru)图4-65所示,浮(fu)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)钳(qian)(qian)盘(pan)(pan)式(shi)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)器(qi)(qi)由(you)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)盘(pan)(pan)、分(fen)泵、制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)钳(qian)(qian)、制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)块(kuai)、油管等组成,制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)钳(qian)(qian)1相对制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)盘(pan)(pan)5可(ke)以轴向(xiang)滑动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong),制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)时(shi),活塞(sai)2在液压(ya)力的(de)作(zuo)用(yong)下,将活动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)块(kuai)3推向(xiang)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)盘(pan)(pan),同时(shi)反力使制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)钳(qian)(qian)1右移,致使固定制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)块(kuai)4压(ya)靠(kao)到制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)盘(pan)(pan)5.上(shang),从而(er)达到制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)目(mu)的(de)。这种制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)器(qi)(qi)的(de)结构紧凑,动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)作(zuo)灵敏,可(ke)通过调节油压(ya)来改变制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)力矩,因此(ci)在汽车( 尤(you)其(qi)是轿车)上(shang)得(de)到了广(guang)泛的(de)应用(yong)。