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制动器知识

几种制动器结构介绍,快来一起了解下

来源:http://impnow.com/news/354.html添加时间:2021-07-22

  在机(ji)械设(she)备(bei)的(de)(de)工(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)中(zhong),需要用到制动(dong)装(zhuang)置,才能让工(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)更安全(quan)。由(you)于机(ji)械有很多种,不(bu)(bu)同环境、作(zuo)(zuo)用不(bu)(bu)同的(de)(de)制动(dong)器(qi)(qi)样(yang)式(shi)(shi)会有区(qu)别,分别有块式(shi)(shi)制动(dong)器(qi)(qi)、带式(shi)(shi)制动(dong)器(qi)(qi)、盘式(shi)(shi)制动(dong)器(qi)(qi)等。那在机(ji)械设(she)备(bei)中(zhong)制动(dong)器(qi)(qi)的(de)(de)结构怎么样(yang),下面跟小编(bian)一起(qi)来(lai)了(le)解(jie)下吧。

  1、块式制动器

  

块式制动器

  图12-29所示(shi)为块(kuai)(kuai)式制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)器,靠(kao)瓦(wa)块(kuai)(kuai)5与制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)轮6之间的(de)(de)摩擦力来制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)。该制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)器为短行程交(jiao)流(liu)电磁铁外块(kuai)(kuai)式制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)器。弹簧4产生的(de)(de)闭锁(suo)(suo)力通(tong)(tong)过制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)臂作用于制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)块(kuai)(kuai)上(shang),使制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)块(kuai)(kuai)压向(xiang)制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)轮达到(dao)常闭状态。工(gong)作时,由于电磁铁1线(xian)圈(quan)(quan)通(tong)(tong)电,电磁铁产生与闭锁(suo)(suo)力方向(xiang)相反(fan)的(de)(de)吸力,由电磁线(xian)圈(quan)(quan)的(de)(de)吸力吸住衔铁,再通(tong)(tong)过一套(tao)杠杆(gan)(gan)使瓦(wa)块(kuai)(kuai)松开,机(ji)器便能自由运转。当(dang)需(xu)要制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)时,则切断电流(liu),电磁线(xian)圈(quan)(quan)释(shi)放衔铁2,依靠(kao)弹簧力并(bing)通(tong)(tong)过杠杆(gan)(gan)使瓦(wa)块(kuai)(kuai)5抱紧制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)轮6。

  2.带式制动器

  

带式制动器

  带(dai)(dai)式制(zhi)(zhi)动器主(zhu)要用挠(nao)性钢带(dai)(dai)包(bao)围制(zhi)(zhi)动轮(lun)。如图(tu)12-30所示,制(zhi)(zhi)动带(dai)(dai)包(bao)在制(zhi)(zhi)动轮(lun)上,当F向下作用时,制(zhi)(zhi)动带(dai)(dai)与(yu)制(zhi)(zhi)动轮(lun)之间产(chan)生摩擦(ca)力,从(cong)而实现合闸制(zhi)(zhi)动。制(zhi)(zhi)动带(dai)(dai)是钢带(dai)(dai)内表面镶嵌一层(ceng)石棉制(zhi)(zhi)品与(yu)制(zhi)(zhi)动轮(lun)接(jie)触,以增加摩擦(ca)力。带(dai)(dai)式制(zhi)(zhi)动器结构(gou)简(jian)单(dan),它由于包(bao)角大而制(zhi)(zhi)动力矩大,但其缺(que)点(dian)是制(zhi)(zhi)动带(dai)(dai)磨损不(bu)均匀(yun),容易断裂,而且对轴的作用力大。

  3.盘式制动器

  

盘式制动器

  盘(pan)(pan)式(shi)(shi)制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)器的工作(zuo)表(biao)面为圆盘(pan)(pan)的两(liang)个(ge)侧(ce)面,其摩擦(ca)(ca)副由制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)盘(pan)(pan)和制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)块(kuai)组成,如(ru)图12-31所示(shi)。右侧(ce)制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)块(kuai)2与(yu)缸(gang)(gang)体3固连(lian),左(zuo)侧(ce)制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)块(kuai)与(yu)活塞5固连(lian)。当有压力油进人油缸(gang)(gang)时(shi),活塞5与(yu)缸(gang)(gang)体3相对运(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong),使两(liang)制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)块(kuai)2压紧(jin)制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)盘(pan)(pan)1,由此产生摩擦(ca)(ca)力而实现(xian)制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)。泄去油压后,弹簧4使缸(gang)(gang)体3与(yu)活塞5反向移动(dong)(dong)(dong),使制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)块(kuai)2与(yu)制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)盘(pan)(pan)1脱离,实现(xian)松闸。盘(pan)(pan)式(shi)(shi)制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)器的特点是结构紧(jin)凑、体积小(xiao)、制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)块(kuai)可多对布置,制(zhi)(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)力矩(ju)大。它适用于工程车(che)辆、起重(zhong)运(yun)输机械(xie)、摩托车(che)及石油、矿(kuang)山机械(xie)等。

  需要注意:

  制动器(qi)(qi)的(de)(de)选(xuan)(xuan)择(ze)(ze)与联轴器(qi)(qi)的(de)(de)选(xuan)(xuan)择(ze)(ze)所考(kao)(kao)虑(lv)的(de)(de)条(tiao)件和选(xuan)(xuan)择(ze)(ze)内(nei)容大致相同,但在选(xuan)(xuan)择(ze)(ze)制动器(qi)(qi)的(de)(de)型号时制动力矩的(de)(de)计算(suan)较(jiao)为复杂,可参(can)考(kao)(kao)有关设计资料进(jin)行。